miercuri, 1 februarie 2017

audio stories for children

sâmbătă, 14 ianuarie 2017

Differences in American and British English grammar - article


An article by Kerry Maxwell and Lindsay Clandfield on recognizing grammatical differences between American and British English.


Introduction

Speakers of American English generally use the present perfect tense (have/has + past participle) far less than speakers of British English. In spoken American English it is very common to use the simple past tense as an alternative in situations where the present perfect would usually have been used in British English. The two situations where this is especially likely are:
(i) In sentences which talk about an action in the past that has an effect in the present:
American English / British English 
  • Jenny feels ill. She ate too much. 
  • Jenny feels ill. She's eaten too much. 
  • I can't find my keys. Did you see them anywhere?
  • I can't find my keys. Have you seen them anywhere?
(ii) In sentences which contain the words already, just or yet:
American English / British English 
  • A: Are they going to the show tonight?
  • B: No. They already saw it.
  • A: Are they going to the show tonight?
  • B: No. They've already seen it.
  • A: Is Samantha here?
  • B: No, she just left.
  • A: Is Samantha here?
  • B: No, she's just left.
  • A: Can I borrow your book?
  • B: No, I didn't read it yet.
  • A: Can I borrow your book?
  • B: No, I haven't read it yet. 


1. Verb agreement with collective nouns

In British English collective nouns, (i.e. nouns referring to particular groups of people or things), (e.g. staff , government, class, team) can be followed by a singular or plural verb depending on whether the group is thought of as one idea, or as many individuals, e.g.:
My team is winning.
The other team are all sitting down.
In American English collective nouns are always followed by a singular verb, so an American would usually say:
Which team is losing?
whereas in British English both plural and singular forms of the verb are possible, as in:
Which team is/are losing?


2. Use of delexical verbs have and take

In British English, the verb have frequently functions as what is technically referred to as a delexical verb, i.e. it is used in contexts where it has very little meaning in itself but occurs with an object noun which describes an action, e.g.:
I'd like to have a bath.
Have is frequently used in this way with nouns referring to common activities such as washing or resting, e.g.:
She's having a little nap.
I'll just have a quick shower before we go out.
In American English, the verb take, rather than have, is used in these contexts, e.g.:
Joe's taking a shower.
I'd like to take a bath.
Let's take a short vacation.
Why don't you take a rest now?


3. Use of auxiliaries and modals

In British English, the auxiliary do is often used as a substitute for a verb when replying to a question, e.g.:
  • A: Are you coming with us?
  • B: I might do.
In American English, do is not used in this way, e.g.:
  • A: Are you coming with us?
  • B: I might.
In British English needn't is often used instead of don't need to, e.g.:
They needn't come to school today.
They don't need to come to school today.
In American English needn't is very unusual and the usual form is don't need to, i.e.:
They don't need to come to school today.
In British English, shall is sometimes used as an alternative to will to talk about the future, e.g.:
I shall/will be there later.
In American English, shall is unusual and will is normally used.
In British English shall I / we is often used to ask for advice or an opinion, e.g.:
Shall we ask him to come with us?
In American English should is often used instead of shall, i.e.:
Should we ask him to come with us?


4. Use of prepositions

In British English, at is used with many time expressions, e.g.:
at Christmas/five 'o' clock
at the weekend
In American English, on is always used when talking about the weekend, not at, e.g.:
Will they still be there on the weekend?
She'll be coming home on weekends.
In British English, at is often used when talking about universities or other institutions, e.g.:
She studied chemistry at university.
In American English, in is often used, e.g.:
She studied French in high school.
In British English, to and from are used with the adjective different, e.g.:
This place is different from/to anything I've seen before.
In American English from and than are used with different, e.g.:
This place is different from/than anything I've seen before.
In British English to is always used after the verb write, e.g.:
I promised to write to her every day.
In American English, to can be omitted after write, i.e.:
I promised to write her every day.


5. Past tense forms

Below is a table showing verbs which have different simple past and past participle forms in American and British English. Note that the irregular past forms burnt, dreamt and spoilt are possible in American English, but less common than the forms ending in -ed.
InfinitiveSimple past
(Br)
Simple past
(Am)
Past participle
(Br)
Past participle
(Am)
burnburned/
burnt
burned/
burnt
burned/
burnt
burned/
burnt
bustbustbustedbustbusted
divediveddove/
dived
diveddived
dreamdreamed/
dreamt
dreamed/
dreamt
dreamed/
dreamt
dreamed/
dreamt
getgotgotgotgotten
leanleaned/
leant
leanedleaned/
leant
leaned
learnlearned/
learnt
learnedlearned/
learnt
learned
pleadpleadedpleaded/
pled
pleadedpleaded/
pled
proveprovedprovedprovedproved/
proven
sawsawedsawedsawnsawn/
sawed
smellsmelled/
smelt
smelledsmelled/
smelt
smelled
spillspilled/
spilt
spilledspilled/
spilt
spilled
spoilspoiled/
spoilt
spoiled/
spoilt
spoiled/
spoilt
spoiled/
spoilt
stinkstankstank/
stunk
stunkstunk
wakewokewoke/
waked
wokenwoken

Note that have got is possible in American English, but is used with the meaning 'have'gotten is the usual past participle of get, e.g. 
American EnglishBritish English
You've got two brothers
(= you have two brothers)
You've got two brothers
You've gotten taller this yearYou've got taller this year


6. Implications for teaching

The two major varieties of English

The two varieties of English most widely found in print and taught around the world are British and American - it is therefore important for teachers to be aware of the major differences between the two. And while lexical differences are the easiest ones to notice, a knowledge of grammatical and phonological differences can be useful not only for teachers to be aware of, but also to be able to deal with should they come up in class.

Which is better?

An important point to make is that different doesn’t mean wrong. Comments such as “American English is inferior to British English”, or “American English is better than British English” have no solid basis other than the speaker’s opinion. The truth is that no language or regional variety of language is inherently better or worse than another. They are just different. Students will often have very firm beliefs on which English they think is better/easier to understand/clearer etc. While it may be true for that particular individual, there is no evidence to suggest that one variety is easier to learn or understand than the other.

Materials and varieties

If you are an American English speaker teaching with a British coursebook or vice versa, what do you say when the book is different from your English? The answer here is to point out the difference. The differences are not so numerous as to overload the students and often can be easily dealt with. For example, if you are an American English speaker using a lesson that has just included “at the weekend” it takes very little time to point out that in American English people say “on the weekend”. Accept either from your students then. If you decide to go along with the book and say “at the weekend” yourself, you’ll probably sound unnatural, and “on the weekend” might slip out anyway!

Exams and essay writing

In most international exams, both varieties of English are accepted. However, while writing for an international exam (or writing in English generally) students should try to remain consistent. That means if they favour (or favor) American spelling and grammar, they should stick to that convention for the whole piece of writing.

What role do other varieties of English have in the classroom?

Although British and American varieties are the most documented, there are of course many other varieties of English. Scotland, Ireland, South Asia, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, West Africa, the Caribbean, South Africa all have their own regional variations of English. The decision whether or not to highlight aspects of these Englishes would depend on two factors:
if the students are going to live, or are already living, in one of these places - in which case the need to understand specific aspects of that English is clear; or
if the teacher is from one of those places and therefore speaks a regional variation of English. In this case it could be useful to occasionally point out differences between your English and that of your Anchor Point:bottomcoursebook (see point 3 above about using your own variety).

marți, 29 noiembrie 2016

CURS DE ENGLEZA IN 900 DE PASI -- Conditionalul

302. Modul conditional exista si in engleza si in romana:
I would fly if I had wings. - As zbura daca as avea aripi.
As zbura (I would fly) e conditionalul prezent
As zbura - I would fly e conditionalul prezent
303. Conditionalul Prezent ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele:
I would fly - Eu as zbura
You would fly - Tu ai zbura
He would fly - El ar zbura
She would fly - Ea ar zbura
We would fly - Noi am zbura
You would fly - Voi ati zbura
They would fly - Ei, Ele ar zbura
304. I shall do this are la conditional echivalentul I should do this
iar
I will do this are la conditional echivalentul I would do this

would si should nu inseamna acelasi lucru:
shall implica o promisiune - should inseamna ar trebui
I would inseamna as vrea
Tom: I shall win the race! - Voi castiga cursa!
Bill: You should!- Ar trebui (ar fi cazul)

Tom: I will call you!- Am sa va sun!
Bill I know you would (like to call us), but... - Stiu ca ai vrea sa ne suni, dar...

305. La diateza pasiva ca si la diateza activa conditionalul nu se schimba in functie de persona (You, he, she etc)
I would be asked by my teacher - As fi intrebat de profesoara.

306. Conditionalul prezent continuu
I, you...would be flying.
They are flying a kite - Ei inalta un zmeu prezent continuu.
They would be flying a kite if there was wind - Ei ar inalta un zmeu daca ar avea vant conditionalul la prezent continuu.

307. Conditionalul prezent continuu inlocuieste conditionalul prezent in aceleasi cazuri in care prezentul continuu inlocuieste prezentul.
If he were here, he would be answering your questions, as we speak - Daca era aici, v-ar fi raspuns la intrebari chiar acum (in timpul acesta in care va vorbesc). iar la prezent Because he is here he is answeing questions, right now - Pentru ca e aici, el raspunde chiar acum la intrebari

308. Si Conditionalul Prezent Continuu ca si consditionalul prezent ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele.
I would be flying
You would be flying
He would be flying
She would be flying
We would be flying
You would be flying
They would be flying

309. Conditionalul Prezent Continuu nu are forma pasiva.


310. Conditionalul Trecut e de forma:
I would have asked - Eu as fi intrebat
sau
I should have asked - Ar fi trebuit sa intreb

311. Conjugarea Conditionalului trecut e neschimbata la toate persoanele
In cazul verbelor neregulate se foloseste forma a treia
I would have asked
You would have asked
He would have asked
She would have asked
We would have asked
You would have asked
They would have asked

312. Diateza pasiva - Conditionalul Trecut
Ca si pana acum nici aceasta forma nu se schimba in functie de persoana (You, he, she etc)
I would have been asked by my teacher - As fi fost intrebat de profesoara mea.

313. Conditionalul trecut continuu
I, you...would have been flying.
They were flying a kite - Ei inaltau un zmeu - trecut continuu.
They would have been flying a kite if there had been wind - Ei ar fi inaltat un zmeu daca ar fi avut vant -conditionalul la trecut continuu.

314. Conditionalul trecut continuu inlocuieste conditionalul trecut in aceleasi cazuri in care trecutul continuu inlocuieste trecutul.
He would have been doing jail time if the law hadn't changed - Ar fi facut puscarie daca nu s-ar fi schimbat legea.

315. Conditionalul trecut continuu ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele
I would have been flying
You would have been flying
He would have been flying
She would have been flying
We would have been flying
You would have been flying
They would have been flying

316. Conditionalul Trecut Continuu nu are forma pasiva.


317. Propozitiile care contin conditionale contin deasemeni de multe ori prin natura lor conjunctia daca.
Aceste propozitii au forma:
Daca A atunci B - If A then B
Daca A, B - If A, B
B daca A - B if A.
Aceste propozitii care contin o conditie se numesc conditionale.
In engleza, ele au anumite reguli pentru timpurile verbelor din cadrul lor.
Ele se numesc If Clauses

If I go to school then I will learn a lot - Daca ma duc la scoala atunci voi invata multe
sau
If I go to school, I will learn a lot
sau
I will learn a lot if I go to school - Voi invata multe daca ma duc la scoala).













sâmbătă, 20 august 2016

Rumpelstiltskin & Hansel And Gretel Compilation

Rumpelstiltskin & Hansel And Gretel Compilation - Best Animated Fairy Tales For Children



RUMPELSTILTSKIN
Once there was a poor miller who had a very beautiful daughter. One day, he went to the king’s court and claimed that his daughter could spin straw into gold. The king ordered the miller’s daughter to come to the palace. He took her to a room full of straw and said to her, “You must spin all this straw into gold tonight, or you shall die!” The miller’s daughter was locked in the room alone. She did not know what to do and began to cry. Suddenly, a dwarf came out of nowhere and asked her, “Why are you crying?” When she told him the story, he said, “Don’t worry, I will spin the straw into gold, but what will you give me in return?” “I will give you my necklace!” she promised. The dwarf spun all the straw into gold. The third morning, the king was very happy to see the room full of gold. He took her to the biggest room filled with straw and said, “If you spin all this straw into gold, you shall become my wife!” The girl was locked up and once again, she began to cry. This time, when the little man came to her, she said, “I do not have anything to give you, sir! What will I do?” He said, “Promise me that you will give me your first born child when you become the queen!” The girl agreed to do so, because she was not expecting to become the king’s wife. The tiny man spun all the straw into gold in the night. The next day, the king was pleased to see the gold. He married the girl and soon they had a baby.

That night, when the little man carne to the queen, she was already prepared. The tiny man challenged, “Do you give up? Shall I take your child away?” The queen smiled and replied, “Is your name Harry? Is it Conrad? Perhaps it is Rumpelstiltskin!” Hearing his name, the tiny man screamed, “How could you possibly know my name?” Saying this, he ran away, deep into the forest never to be seen again.

JACK AND THE BEANSTALK
Jack is a young boy living with his widowed mother and a dairy cow as their only source of income. When the cow stops giving milk, Jack's mother tells him to take it to the market to be sold. On the way, Jack meets an old man who offers "magic beans" in exchange for the cow, and Jack makes the trade. When he arrives home without any money, his mother becomes furious, throws the beans on the ground, and sends Jack to bed.

During the night, the magic beans cause a gigantic beanstalk to grow, which Jack climbs to a land high in the sky. When Jack finds an enormous castle, he breaks in. Soon after, the castle's owner, a giant, returns home. He senses that Jack is nearby, and speaks a rhyme:

Fee-fi-fo-fum!
I smell the blood of an Englishman,
Be he alive, or be he dead,
I'll grind his bones to make my bread.
When the giant falls asleep Jack steals a bag of gold coins and makes his escape down the beanstalk.

Jack climbs the beanstalk twice more. He learns of other treasures and steals them when the giant sleeps: first a goose that lays golden eggs (the most common variant is a hen; compare the idiom "to kill the goose that laid the golden eggs."), then a harp that plays by itself. The giant wakes when Jack leaves the house with the harp and chases Jack down the beanstalk. Jack calls to his mother for an axe and before the giant reaches the ground, cuts down the beanstalk, causing the giant to fall to his death. Jack and his mother live happily ever after with the riches that Jack stole.

#rumpelstiltskin #jackandthebeanstalk #fairytales #fairytalescompilation #bedtimestoriers #fairytale #disneyfairytales